Is Hizmet a Paramodern Example of Islamic Spirituality?

Leon Kehl This essay examines the Turkish Hizmet civil society movement as a potential example of an Islamic paramodern spirituality. I look at the Turkish culture out of which the Hizmet movement emerged, postulating that impact culture may have had on the unique  paramodern features of this movement. I first begin with a description of […]

Islamism and Fethullah Gülen

Engin Sezen On any given day, we hear words and phrases such as Islamic, Islamists, Muslim terrorist, Muslim militant, Islamic fundamentalist, Muslim radical, Muslim extremist, and the list goes on. ‘Islamism’ is one of the most argued over, variously defined words, and probably the most controversial one. As Ihsan Yilmaz states, the distinction between Islam, Islamic and Islamism is sometimes […]